بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
I’m currently reading a book called “Mukaffiraat adh-dhunoob wal-khathaaya wa asbab al-maghfirah min Al-Kitaab was-Sunnah” (Expiation of sins and mistakes and the causes of forgiveness from the Book (i.e. the Quran) and the Sunnah) by Shaikh Saeed ibn Wahf Al-Qahtaani (author of the famous “Fortress of the Muslim”)
The book is split into two parts: the first part mentions the proofs from the Quran and the second mentions the proofs from the Sunnah.
I thought that this was a really wonderful topic (because all of us are in need of expiating our sins) so I thought I would mention the Quranic proofs for each point, so that the non-Arabic speakers could benefit.
As for the explanation, I’m not translating that (it will take too long). I might summarise a few things here and there.
If someone wants an explanation of a specific part, then please feel free to ask.
1) Iman (faith) and righteous deeds cause evil deeds to be expiated and sins to be forgiven.
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَنُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَحْسَنَ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
“Those who believe [in the Oneness of Allah and in Messenger Muhammad, and do not apostate because of the harm they receive from the polytheists], and do righteous good deeds, surely, We shall remit from them their evil deeds and shall reward them according to the best of that which they used to do.” [Surah Al-Ankabut (29) : 7]
The best of which they used to do refers to the obligatory (waajib) deeds as well as the recommended (mustahabb) deeds.
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۙ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ
“But those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and believe in that which is sent down to Muhammad, for it is the truth from their Lord, He will expiate from them their sins, and will make good their state.” [Surah Muhammad (47) : 2]
Righteous deeds refers to both the rights of Allah and the rights of the slaves (both obligatory and recommended).
The sins that are expiated include the big ones and the little ones.
Make good their state refers to many aspects: their deen (religion), their dunya (worldy life), their hearts and their actions.
Basically, their entire state is made good.
يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُكُمْ لِيَوْمِ الْجَمْعِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ يَوْمُ التَّغَابُنِ ۗ وَمَن يُؤْمِن بِاللَّـهِ وَيَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِ وَيُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
“(And remember) the Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering, that will be the Day of mutual loss and gain (i.e. loss for the disbelievers as they will enter the Hell-fire and gain for the believers as they will enter Paradise). And whosoever believes in Allah and performs righteous good deeds, He will remit from him his sins, and will admit him to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise) to dwell therein forever, that will be the great success.” [Surah At-Taghabun (64) : 9]
فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ
“So those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah, Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, for them is forgiveness and Rizqun Kareem (generous provision, i.e. Paradise).” [Surah Al-Hajj (22) : 50]
2) Sabr (patience) and righteous deeds cause sins to be forgiven and rewards to be multiplied.
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَـٰئِكَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ
“Except those who show patience and do righteous good deeds, those: theirs will be forgiveness and a great reward (Paradise).” [Surah Hud (11) : 11]
3) Iman (faith) and taqwa (piety) expiate sins.
وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَكَفَّرْنَا عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَأَدْخَلْنَاهُمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ
“And if only the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) had believed (in Muhammad) and warded off evil (sin, ascribing partners to Allah) and had become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious) We would indeed have blotted out their sins and admitted them to Gardens of pleasure (in Paradise).” [Surah Al-Maaidah (5) : 65]
To be continued…